The forests, the most representative ecosystem of the national park and the best preserved and most extensive, occupy the area of ​​9,335.25 ha.

   The second ecosystem present in the natural protected area is represented by meadows, they cover 1,190.60 ha, the category with the maximum degree of naturalness is the meadow in the mountain hollow of the Chenia – Dumitra and Sapa – Argele mountains.

   Stâncaria, a terrestrial ecosystem that occupies approximately 66.97 ha, is the third ecosystem that gives the protected natural area a special touch of uniqueness.

   The aquatic ecosystem is what defines the natural protected area, being represented by the Jiu River and its tributaries.

   Regarding the landscape, the territory falls into the category of “medium and low mountain landscapes under the influence of the oceanic, partially sub-Mediterranean climate”, respectively in the landscape type “Balkan beech forests with hornbeam and linden and thermophilic elements” (Stoiculescu, 2004 ). Also, the landscape of the area includes the course of the Jiu River in the area of ​​the gorge, with one of the most impressive Carpathian passes – Lainici.


   The floristic inventory includes a number of 958 species of higher plants, including 405 genera and 100 families.

  The number of species identified so far, mentioned in the studies, represents approximately 25% of the total species known in the flora of our country.

   Both the “Foundation Study of Defileul Jiului National Park” and recent studies highlight the fact that the area of ​​the protected natural area is home to 65 species of flora of national/European interest.

   We list:

  1. Plant species of national / European interest: the common cross (Hepatica transsilvanica), common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), mountain bell (Campanula serrata), carnation species (Dianthus henteri, Dianthus spiculifolius), orchid species (Dactylorihiza maculata, Epipactis helleborine).
  2. Representative habitats of the area are the beech forests, the gorun forests, the black alder alluvial forests on the two banks of the Jiu, mountain meadows with nardus stricta, whose structure defines some habitats of European interest identified in natural protected area:

4060 Second alpine and boreal shrubs

6230* Species-rich montane Nardus meadows on siliceous substrates

6410 Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clay soils

6520 Mountain meadows

9110 Beech forests of the Luzulo-Fagetum type

9130 Asperulo-Fagetum beech forests

9180* Tilio-Acerion forests on steep slopes, gullies and ravines

91E0* Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior

91V0 Dacian beech forests

91Y0 Dacian forests of oak and hornbeam


   The presence of natural, quasi-virgin, naturally preserved forests provides specific ecological conditions for over 900 species of fauna identified.

   Thus, the diversity of habitats, fauna species of national interest and the presence of endemic fauna elements give a special note of uniqueness to the biodiversity of the national park.

   We list:

  1. Large carnivore species: wolf (Canis lupus), bear (Ursus arctos), lynx (Lynx lynx), otter (Lutra lutra).
  2. Species of herbivores: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), Carpathian deer (Cervus elaphus L.) and black goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.).
  3. Chiropteran species (bats): horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), barbastella barbastellus, long-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii), mouse-eared bat (Myotis blythii), sharp-nosed bat (Myotis myotis).
  4. Birds: In specialized literature, the Jiului Gorge is mentioned under the name “central – European – Bulgarian road” being one of the main migration routes of birds.
    Through the studies carried out in the area, species of birds protected by national and international legislation have been identified, among which we list: the water blackbird (Cinculus cinculus), the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), the common shrew (Buteo buteo L.), the mountain eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos L.), pigeon owl (Accipiter gentilis L.).
  5. Species of amphibians and reptiles: yellow-bellied springer (Bombina variegata), crested newt (Triturus cristatus), common newt (Triturus vulgaris), salamander (Salamandra salamandra), horned viper (Vipera ammodytes), common viper (Vipera berus) .
  6. Invertebrate species: scorpion (Euscorpius carpathicus), alpine tailor (Rosalia alpina), large oak tailor (Cerambyx cerdo), hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita), tiger butterfly (Euplagia quadripunctaria), torrent crayfish (Austropotmobius torrentium) .
  7. Ichthyofaunistic species: Danube bream (Sabanejewia aurata), porpoise (Gobio uranoscopus), barbel (Barbus balcanicus).